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Hantavirus regulation of endothelial cell functions

Journal: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
ISSN: 0340-6245
Topic:

Infections of the Endothelium

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1160/TH09-09-0640
Issue: 2009: 102/6 (Dec) pp. 1007–1291
Pages: 1030-1041

Hantavirus regulation of endothelial cell functions

Erich R. Mackow1; Irina N. Gavrilovskaya2

1Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, USA; 2Northport VAMC, Northport, New York, USA

Keywords

Hypoxia, virology, endothelial cells, integrins, Chemokines

Summary

Hantaviruses cause two vascular permeability-based diseases and primarily infect endothelial cells which form the primary fluid barrier of the vasculature. Since hantavirus infections are not lytic, the mechanisms by which hantaviruses cause haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) or Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) are indeterminate. HPS is associated with acute pulmonary oedema and HFRS with moderate haemorrhage and renal sequelae, perhaps reflecting the location of vast microvascular beds and endothelial cell reservoirs available for hantavirus infection. Endothelial cells regulate capillary integrity, and hantavirus infection provides a primary means for altering vascular permeability that contributes to pathogenesis. The central importance of endothelial cells in regulating oedema, vascular repair, angiogenesis, immune cell recruitment, platelet deposition as well as gas exchange and solute delivery suggest that a multitude of inputs and cellular responses may be influenced by hantavirus infection and contribute to pathogenic changes in vascular permeability. Here we focus on understanding hantavirus interactions with endothelial cells which are linked to vascular permeability, and provide insight into the contribution of endothelial cell responses in hantavirus pathogenesis.

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