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Coagulation factor and protease pathways in thrombosis and cardiovascular disease

Journal: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
ISSN: 0340-6245
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1160/TH17-02-0079
Issue: 2017: Issue 7 2017 (pp. 1217-1454)
Pages: 1265-1271
Ahead of Print: 2017-06-08

Coagulation factor and protease pathways in thrombosis and cardiovascular disease

H. ten Cate (1, 2), T. M. Hackeng (3), P. García de Frutos (4)

(1) Department of Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht, the Netherlands; (2) Thrombosis Expert Center, Maastricht University Medical Center (MUMC+), Maastricht, the Netherlands; (3) Department of Biochemistry, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht, the Netherlands; (4) Department of Cell Death and Proliferation, IIBB-CSIC and IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain

Keywords

thrombosis, coagulation inhibitors, atherothrombosis, Coagulation factors, proteases, protein C/S pathway, TFPI, vitamin K–dependent factors

Summary

The biochemical characterisation of the proteolytic pathways that constitute blood coagulation was one of the most relevant achievements in biomedical research during the second half of the 20th century. Understanding these pathways was of crucial importance for improving global health through application in haemostasis and thrombosis pathologies. Immediately after the cloning of the genes corresponding to these proteins, mutations were discovered in them that were associated with imbalances in haemostasis. Later, the importance of coagulation pathways in other pathological processes was demonstrated, such as in atherosclerosis and inflammation, both essential processes involved in vascular disease. In the present review we evaluate the concepts that have allowed us to reach the integrated vision on coagulation that we have today. The thrombo-inflammation model encompassing these aspects includes a pivotal role for the proteases of the coagulation pathway as well as the regulatory proteins thereof. These concepts illustrate the importance of the coagulation cascade in cardiovascular pathology, not only in thrombotic processes, but also in atherosclerotic processes and in the response to ischaemia-reperfusion injury, making it a central mechanism in cardiovascular disease.

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